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    Nitrogen and water use efficiency of fertigated processing potato

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    Abstract
    Water shortage in China, particularly in the north and northwest of China, is very serious. The region accounts for half of the total area of China, but has less than 20% of total national available water resources. While the water shortage in this region is severe, irrigation water use efficiency is only about 40%, with a typical agricultural water use efficiency of about 0.46 kg m?3. Excessive irrigation in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia has had a significant influence on downstream water users along the Yellow River. It is widely believed that an increase in the agricultural water use efficiency is the key to mitigating water shortage and reducing environmental problems. This paper reviews water-saving agricultural systems and approaches to improve agricultural water use efficiency in the arid and semiarid areas of China. The paper will cover biological mechanisms of water-saving agriculture and water-saving irrigation technologies, including low pressure irrigation, furrow irrigation, plastic mulches, drip irrigation under plastic, rainfall harvesting and terracing. In addition, the paper addresses the compensatory effect of limited irrigation and fertilizer supplementation on water use efficiency and highlights the need to breed new varieties for high water use efficiency. Considerable potential for further improvement in agricultural water use efficiency in the region depends on effective conservation of moisture and efficient use of the limited water.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. The climate and farming systems in northern China
    3. Water use efficiency of major crops
    4. Water-saving agriculture in China
    4.1. The concept of water-saving agriculture
    4.2. A water-saving agricultural system
    5. Some biological issues in water-saving agriculture research
    5.1. Effect of water deficits on several physiological processes
    5.2. Drought sensitivity at the different crop growth stages
    5.3. Varietal responses to water deficits
    5.4. Interaction of water and nutrients in WUE
    6. Water-saving agricultural practices
    6.1. Water-saving irrigation
    6.2. Soil management
    6.2.1. Terracing and contour farming
    6.2.2. Mulching
    6.2.3. Fertilization
    6.3. Water harvesting
    7. Challenges and perspectives
    Acknowledgements
    References
     

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    作者:Darwish, T.M., Atallah, T.W., Hajhasan, S., Haidar, A. 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月13日