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    Conjoining rainfall and irrigation seasonality to enhance productivity of water in rice irrigated farms in the Upper Ruaha River Basin, Tanzania

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    Abstract
    Field experimental studies on surge flow irrigation with sediment-laden water in northwestern China showed that a sealing layer was formed on the soil surface as a result of the sediments in the irrigation water going through a ‘trapping’, ‘settling’ and ‘sealing’ processes in the irrigated field. The sealing layer reduced the surface roughness and intake rate of the surface soil, and thus sped up the flow advance. Therefore, higher irrigation efficiency can be achieved with less irrigation water requirement. Analytical studies on water saving efficiencies indicated that the water saving effect of surge irrigation with sediment-laden water was achieved by an interactive impact of sediment content and the intermittent feature of surge flow, but the sediments effect was more pronounced.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. Surge irrigation with sediment-laden water
    2.1. Experimental site description
    2.2. Water saving mechanism of surge irrigation with sediment-laden water
    2.3. The flow characteristics of surge irrigation with sediment-laden water
    2.3.1. Advance phase
    2.3.2. Recession phase
    2.3.3. Equivalent roughness (Manning n)
    2.3.4. Infiltration reduction
    2.4. Water saving effect of the surge irrigation with sediment-laden water
    2.4.1. Definitions
    2.5. Water saving efficiency of surge irrigation with sediment-laden water in furrow system
    2.6. Water saving efficiency of surge irrigation with sediment-laden water in border system
    3. Conclusions
    References
     

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