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    Surge flow irrigation with sediment-laden water in northwestern China

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    Abstract
    Water shortage is the major bottleneck that limits sustainable development of agriculture in north China. Crop physiological water-saving irrigation methods such as temporal (regulated deficit irrigation) and spatial (partial root zone irrigation) deficit irrigation have been tested with much improved crop water use efficiency (WUE) without significant yield reduction. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of (1) spatial deficit irrigation on spring maize in arid Inland River Basin of northwest China during 1997–2000; (2) temporal deficit irrigation on winter wheat in semi-arid Haihe River Basin during 2003–2007 and (3) temporal deficit irrigation on winter wheat and summer maize in Yellow River Basin during 2006–2007. Results showed that alternate furrow irrigation (AFI) maintained similar photosynthetic rate (Pn) but reduced transpiration rate (Tr), and thus increased leaf WUE of maize. It also showed that the improved WUE might only be gained for AFI under less water amount per irrigation. The feasible irrigation cycle is 7d in the extremely arid condition in Inner River Basin of northwest China and less water amount with more irrigation frequency is better for both grain yield and WUE in semi-arid Haihe River Basin of north China. Field experiment in Yellow River Basin of north China also suggests that mild water deficit at early seedling stage is beneficial for grain yield and WUE of summer maize, and the deficit timing and severity should be modulated according to the drought tolerance of different crop varieties. The economical evapotranspiration for winter wheat in Haihe River Basin, summer maize in Yellow River Basin of north China and spring maize in Inland River Basin of northwest China are 420.0 mm, 432.5 mm and 450.0 mm respectively. Our study in the three regions in recent decade also showed that AFI should be a useful water-saving irrigation method for wide-spaced cereals in arid region, but mild water deficit in earlier stage might be a practical irrigation strategy for close-planting cereals. Application of such temporal and spatial deficit irrigation in field-grown crops has greater potential in saving water, maintaining economic yield and improving WUE.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and methods
    2.1. Experiment of spatial deficit irrigation on spring maize in arid Inland River Basin of northwest China
    2.2. Experiment of temporal deficit irrigation on winter wheat in semi-arid Haihe River Basin of north China
    2.3. Experiment of temporal deficit irrigation on winter wheat and summer maize in semi-arid Yellow River Basin of north China
    3. Results
    3.1. Improved WUE by spatial deficit irrigation on maize in arid Inland River Basin of northwest China
    3.1.1. Leaf water use efficiency under different spatial deficit irrigation
    3.1.2. Grain yield and WUE of maize under different spatial deficit irrigation
    3.2. Improved WUE by temporal deficit irrigation on wheat in semi-arid Haihe River Basin of north China
    3.3. Improved WUE by temporal deficit irrigation on winter wheat and summer maize in semi-arid Yellow River Basin of north China
    3.3.1. WUE improved by temporal deficit irrigation on different winter wheat varieties
    3.3.2. Improved WUE by temporal deficit irrigation on summer maize
    4. Discussion
    5. Conclusions
    Acknowledgements
    References
     

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    作者:Wang, Wen-Yan, Luo, Wan, Wang, Zhi-Rong 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月13日