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    Integrating rainwater harvesting with supplemental irrigation into rain-fed spring wheat farming

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    Abstract
    Water shortage is a serious problem threatening sustainable development of agriculture in the North China Plain, where winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the largest water-consuming crop. The objective of this study was to optimize irrigation scheme for high yield and high water use efficiency (WUE) in wheat, on the basis of Jimai 22, a representative cultivar in production. In the field experiments conducted in 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 growing seasons, unfixed amount of water was supplied at sowing, jointing, and anthesis stages to adjust the soil moisture into a controlled ladder. For example, the relative soil moisture contents in the W0 treatment were 80% at sowing, 65% at jointing, and 65% at anthesis; in the W1 treatment, they were 80%, 70%, and 70%, respectively; analogically, they were 80%, 80%, and 80% in the W2 treatment and 90%, 80%, and 80% in the W3 treatment. These results showed that the amount of dry matter accumulation at maturity was the lowest in the W0 treatment and the highest in the W1 treatment. The grain dry matter ratio was significantly higher in W1 than in W2 and W3. After anthesis, the dry matters in vegetative organs began to drain into grains, and the translocation amount and ratio were both ranked as W0 > W3 > W2 > W1, and the contribution of dry matter accumulation to grains was ranked as W1 > W2 > W3 > W0. Under the W1 condition, the filling rate and net photosynthetic rate maintained a relatively high level at the end of filling stage, which was favorable for increasing accumulation and distribution ratio of dry matter and grain weight at maturity. The WUE was higher in W0 than in other treatments. However, the grain yield was the lowest in treatment W0. In both growing seasons, the grain yield, irrigation water use efficiency (WUEI), precipitation use efficiency (WUEP), and irrigation benefit (IB) in W1, W2, and W3 were decreased significantly because more water was supplied. Under the experimental condition, the W1 regime was considered as the optimum. In this regime, the relative soil moisture contents in the 0–140 cm soil layer were controlled to 80% at sowing, 70% at jointing, and 70% at anthesis stages. When 43.8 and 13.8 mm of water was supplied in the 2007–2008 and 2008–2009 growing seasons, the final grain yields of W1 treatment were 8837.8 kg ha?1 and 9040.9 kg ha?1, respectively, and the WUEI and WUEP were the highest among the 4 treatments.

     

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    作者:Xiao, Guoju, Zhang, Qiang, Xiong, Youcai, Lin, Miaozi, Wang, Jing 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月13日