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    Effects of Supplemental Irrigation Based on Testing Soil Moisture on Dry Matter Accumulation and Distribution and Water Use Efficiency in Winter Wheat

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    Abstract
    In the Canary Islands, water scarcity is one of the constraints for agricultural activity. Non-conventional water resources generally represent more water volume than conventional ones. The distribution of these resources frequently permits the possibility of a conjunctive use of desalinated (DW) water and reclaimed municipal wastewater (RW). Field testing with both water qualities and different irrigation systems is necessary for optimal site-specific management. The objective of this work was to evaluate soil salinity and phosphorus distribution, and alfalfa yield in a 20 month field experiment carried out in the island of Gran Canaria, using municipal RW and freshwater (FW) under subsurface drip irrigation (SDI). Phosphorus speciation was performed both in irrigation waters and in soils (Olsen's inorganic, organic, and microbial). RW had large EC values (2.4 dS m?1) with a remarkable nutrient load contribution and an average total P around 3 mg L?1, predominantly hydrolysable forms, while FW had very low salinity and negligible amounts of P. For the RW treatment a salt gradient was established, causing plant mortality between the irrigation lines. The study of P speciation allows describing P distribution and plant uptake in terms of P forms. Large values of microbial P were produced for the two irrigation waters around the emitters, especially for FW.
    A faster P-cycling could have contributed to the significantly larger inorganic P contents observed in FW irrigated soils, in spite no external sources were added by the irrigation water.

    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and methods
    2.1. Climate and soil characteristics
    2.2. Irrigation system
    2.3. Water quality treatments and experimental design
    2.4. Sampling and laboratory procedures
    2.5. Data analysis
    3. Results and discussion
    3.1. Irrigation water quality
    3.2. Soil changes after irrigation
    3.3. Plant
    4. Conclusions
    Acknowledgements
    References

     

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    作者:HAN, Zhan-Jiang, YU, Zhen-Wen, WANG, Dong, ZHANG, Yong-Li 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月13日