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    Reef corals bleach to resist stress

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    Abstract
    A rationale is presented here for a primary role of bleaching in regulation of the coral–zooxanthellae symbiosis under conditions of stress. Corals and zooxanthellae have fundamentally different metabolic rates, requiring active homeostasis to limit zooxanthellae production and manage translocated products to maintain the symbiosis. The control processes for homeostasis are compromised by environmental stress, resulting in metabolic imbalance between the symbionts. For the coral–zooxanthella symbiosis the most direct way to minimize metabolic imbalance under stress is to reduce photosynthetic production by zooxanthellae. Two mechanisms have been demonstrated that do this: reduction of the chlorophyll concentration in individual zooxanthellae and reduction of the relative biomass of zooxanthellae. Both mechanisms result in visual whitening of the coral, termed bleaching. Arguments are presented here that bleaching provides the final control to minimize physiological damage from stress as an adversity response to metabolic imbalance. As such, bleaching meets the requirements of a stress response syndrome/general adaptive mechanism that is sensitive to internal states rather than external parameters. Variation in bleaching responses among holobionts reflects genotypic and phenotypic differentiation, allowing evolutionary change by natural selection. Thus, reef corals bleach to resist stress, and thereby have some capacity to adapt to and survive change. The extreme thermal anomalies causing mass coral bleaching worldwide lie outside the reaction norms for most coral–zooxanthellae holobionts, revealing the limitations of bleaching as a control mechanism.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    1.1. Bleaching and regulation
    1.2. Bleaching and stress
    1.3. Bleaching and adaptation
    1.4. Metabolic innovation, energy and consequences for symbiotic homeostasis
    1.5. Tradeoffs and life history strategies
    2. The model
    3. Discussion
    3.1. Bleaching, regulation and stress
    3.2. Bleaching and adaptation
    Acknowledgements
    References
     

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    作者:Obura, David O. 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月13日