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    Proteomes of the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae in its resistance and susceptibility responses to differently compatible parasitoids

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    Abstract
    Host insects are either susceptible or resistant to parasitoids, where resistant hosts express immunity factors and compatible parasitoids express virulence factors that may reveal the manipulation of susceptible hosts. Using proteomics we compared responses of the same host, the aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae, challenged by a well-adapted parasitoid Aphidius nigripes or by a less adapted relative, Aphidius ervi. The host was found to be equally acceptable to both parasitoids, but while A. nigripes normally developed and killed hosts (high susceptibility), development of the incompatible A. ervi was arrested at the primary egg stage (high resistance). Two-dimensional gels at two stages of parasitism revealed divergence in patterns of protein regulation of the M. euphorbiae host, responding to A. ervi or A. nigripes, with the greatest number of protein modulations in the host resistance response. In A. ervi-resistant hosts, proPO was strongly up-regulated, as were also three cuticle proteins, suggesting a PO basis and exoskeleton reinforcement as early and late responses of M. euphorbiae to the risk of parasitism. Resistance also correlated with up-regulation of antioxidative, energy-related, cytoskeleton and heat shock proteins. In A. nigripes-susceptible hosts, various proteins implicated in host and bacterial symbiont metabolism were significantly altered, suggesting complex host nutritional modulation. Over-expression of energy-related proteins also increased when A. nigripes established and developed. Aphid proteomes of compatible and incompatible Aphidius parasitism provide an integrative basis for consolidating our knowledge of host–parasitoid interactions.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and methods
    2.1. Aphids and parasitoids
    2.2. Experimental procedures
    2.2.1. Aphid susceptibility to A. ervi and A. nigripes
    2.2.2. Proteomic analyses
    3. Results
    3.1. Host acceptance and host resistance
    3.2. Proteomic analyses
    3.2.1. Macrosiphum euphorbiae resistance to A. ervi and susceptibility to A. nigripes
    3.2.2. Different developmental stages of non-parasitized M. euphorbiae (control insects)
    4. Discussion
    4.1. Host acceptance and host resistance
    4.2. Proteomic analyses
    4.2.1. Immunity proteins
    4.2.2. Antioxidative proteins
    4.2.3. Energy metabolism proteins
    4.2.4. Cytoskeleton proteins
    4.2.5. Exoskeleton proteins
    4.2.6. Protein synthesis
    4.2.7. Bacterial proteins
    Acknowledgements
    Appendix A. Supplementary materials
    References
     

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