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    Measurement of natural radioactivity in Brazilian beach sands

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    Abstract
    The distribution of natural radionuclide γ-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by 40K, 226Ra and 232Th, were determined for sand samples collected along the coast of four Brazilian States: S?o Paulo (SP), Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Espírito Santo (ES) and Bahia (BA). For some specific beaches, the values of the annual effective dose rates or γ-ray radiation hazard indices exceed the average worldwide exposure of  due to natural sources and the limits proposed by Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development for building materials. The average values of the radium equivalent activities were evaluated and found to be  in Mambucaba (RJ),  in Buena (RJ),  in Anchieta (ES),  in Meaipe (ES),  in Guarapari (ES),  in Vitória (ES),  in Serra (ES),  in S?o Mateus (ES),  in Porto Seguro (BA) and  in Itacaré (BA). These values are above the limit of  recommended for the safe use of building materials for dwellings by OECD.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. Material and methods
    2.1. Sample collection and preparation
    2.2. Calibration and measurements by γ-ray spectrometry
    2.3. Estimation of dose rate
    2.4. γ-ray radiation hazard indexes
    3. Results
    4. Conclusions
    Acknowledgements
    References
     

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