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    Financial appraisal of date-frond mat fence systems for wind erosion control and sand dune stabilization in the arid region of the United Arab Emirates

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    Abstract
    Manganese (Mn) removal is one of the many problems of using ground water since Mn is a common element in ground water. Mn cannot be removed by membrane filtration without being oxidized to manganese dioxide. To find an applicable and clean oxidation method, advanced oxidize processes (AOPs) and Mn sand self-catalytic oxidization were evaluated in this study. Oxidization speed of manganese by hydrogen peroxide was found to be proportional to the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and pH. When pH was adjusted to 9.0 and concentration of H2O2 to 170 mg/L, it took about 100h of contact hours to obtain a removal of 70%. When pH was adjusted to 9.3, it took no more than 50h to achieve a 95% removal rate. Mn sand showed a promising effect compared to H2O2. In certain pH and contact time, the removal of Mn is proportional to an increasing in Mn sand contact area, however the effect has limitations, which depend on pH and contact time. As a result of comparing continuous filtration, the Mn sand not only removed over 95% of Mn(II), but also decreased the membrane fouling, and prolonged the operational life of the membrane.
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    作者:Gumaa, Y. T., Haffar, I., Al-Afifi, M. A. 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月12日