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    Salinity of animal manure and potential risk of secondary soil salinization through successive manure application

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    Abstract
    To enhance animal productivity and maximize economic returns, mineral salts are routinely added to animal feed worldwide. Salinity and ionic composition of animal manure from intensive poultry and livestock farms in Guangdong province were investigated. Field experiments were conducted for six successive crops of Brassica Parachinensis to evaluate the possibility of secondary soil salinization by successive application of chicken manure (CM) and pigeon manure (PM) to a garden soil. The concentration of total soluble salts (TSS), which were mainly composed of sulfate and chloride of potassium and sodium, averaged 49.0, 20.6 and 60.3 g.kg? 1 in chicken, pig and pigeon manure, respectively. After three crops, successive application of CM and PM increased soil concentrations of TSS, Na+, K+, Mg2+, SO42?, and Cl? with application rate, resulting in a rise in soil salinity from low to medium levels and a slight reduction in soil pH. After heavy rains during the last three crops, soil TSS was reduced considerably and pH showed a slight increase. Concentrations of Cl? and Mg2+ increased and Ca2+ decreased at the end of the experiment, all leading to changes in the ionic composition of soil salinity. Manure with higher ion concentrations appeared to play a more important role in affecting ionic composition of soil salinity. The results further suggest that even in a region with abundant rainfall like Guangzhou, there is still potential risk for secondary soil salinization when high rates of CM and PM are applied.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and methods
    2.1. Investigation of salinity in animal manures
    2.1.1. Manure sample collection
    2.1.2. Sample preparation and analysis
    2.2. Field experiment
    2.2.1. Experimental materials
    2.2.2. Experimental treatment
    2.2.3. Soil sample collection and analysis
    2.2.4. Statistical analysis
    3. Results and discussion
    3.1. Salinity of animal manure
    3.1.1. TSS
    3.1.2. Ionic composition
    3.2. Soil salinity as affected by animal manure application
    3.2.1. TSS
    3.2.2. K ion
    3.2.3. Na ion
    3.2.4. Ca ion
    3.2.5. Mg ion
    3.2.6. SO4 ion
    3.2.7. Cl ion
    3.2.8. Ionic composition of soil salinity
    3.2.9. pH
    4. Conclusion
    Acknowledgements
    References
     

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    作者:Li-Xian, Yao, Guo-Liang, Li, Shi-Hua, Tu, Gavin, Sulewski, Zhao-Huan, He 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月12日