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    Effects of vegetable production system on epigeal arthropod populations

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    Abstract
    Populations of epigeal arthropods were monitored in vegetable production systems under varying degrees of sustainable agricultural practices in Fletcher, NC (USA). Two tillage types (conventional plow and disk, strip-tillage (ST)), two input approaches (chemically based, biologically based) and two cropping schedules (continuous tomato Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.], 3-year rotation of sweet corn [Zea mays L.]/cabbage [Brassica oleracea L.], cucumber [Cucumis sativus L.]/cabbage and tomato) were employed from 1995–1998. A second study with tomatoes was performed in 1997–1998 to separate effects of pesticide use, intercropping and herbicide application. Pitfall traps (48-h sample period) were used at 25-day intervals to monitor relative activity of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae), staphylinid (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) beetles and lycosid spiders (Araneidae: Lycosidae). Carabids and lycosids appeared to be more active in systems with ground cover. Trap catches of carabid species were not significantly affected by insecticide input, but trap catches of lycosids were lower in plots with conventional insecticide use. No consistent effect of tillage was found over time, although Scarites spp. were more active in minimally disturbed habitats in 1998. Two distinct patterns of seasonal activity were observed for carabid beetles and lycosid spiders. Ground cover generally enhanced abundance of carabids and lycosids, while tillage type, pesticide use and crop rotation had different effects.
    Article Outline
    1. Introduction
    2. Materials and methods
    2.1. Large plots
    2.2. Small plots
    2.2.1. Clover/chemical insect control
    2.2.2. Clover/biological insect control
    2.2.3. Herbicide/chemical insect control
    2.2.4. Herbicide/biological insect control
    2.2.5. Hand weed/biological insect control
    2.3. Pitfall trapping
    2.4. Spider searches
    2.5. Statistical analysis
    3. Results
    3.1. Large plots
    3.2. Small plots
    3.3. Dry pitfall trapping
    4. Discussion
    Acknowledgements
    References
     

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    作者:Hummel, Robert L.,Walgenbach, James F.,Hoyt, Greg D.,Kennedy, George G. 来源:Elsevier 发布时间:2011年07月12日